Brian Logan, consultant at Baldwins, a CogitalGroup company, recalls the cathedral’s central tower reopening event.Continue reading Baldwins blog: Central tower reopens after three-year restoration project
Durham Cathedral’s beautiful architecture has led it to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site which it clearly deserves due to its astounding features and historic past. However, this can actually make it considerably more difficult to upgrade or renovate.
When my team and I at Axess2 were approached to install a lift for the Cathedral’s new Open Treasure exhibition, we knew that preserving the original structural design was one of the most important things to consider. While this presented a challenge, we welcomed it with enthusiasm. The result is a new lift installed at the Cathedral that can be used by anyone and that allows access to certain parts of the building that were previously only accessible by stairs.
Why We Installed a Lift at the Cathedral
While the Cathedral could be easily accessed through a ramp outside, the inside of the building was a different matter. Its original architectural features meant that accessibility was limited, and wheelchair users would be unable to move around freely, so by having a lift installed the Cathedral was able to provide equal access to everyone.
We installed the Traction 400 (Leonardo) lift in front of the entrance, so anyone that walks in can immediately see it and effortlessly access the Monk’s Dormitory. This lift also has tactile markings in the controls, another feature that complies with the specifications of the Disability Discrimination Act.
What We Had to Consider
Because Durham Cathedral is a Grade I listed building, we had several considerations to bear in mind to ensure the preservation of the original Norman architecture. The project couldn’t move forward without the very important decision of choosing the right lift, as it had to be able to meet the restrictions placed upon such a building.
The Leonardo allowed us to make minimal alterations in the original structure of the building, as we didn’t even need to excavate the area thanks to the lift having a very shallow pit – and its glass enclosure meant the Cathedral’s architecture was visible at all times.
Although the Leonardo is a modern lift, we made sure it could also blend into its surroundings – for this, we opted to add bronze stainless steel finishes to all of the lift’s steel work, so that it could match the design of the Cathedral. In the end we accomplished what we set out to achieve, and gave the building a practical and yet aesthetically pleasing and non-intrusive lift.
Our Experience with Durham Cathedral
Not only did we enjoy every challenge associated with the installation of this lift, as they allowed us to be even more creative during our brainstorming process, but we also thoroughly enjoyed working with the fantastic team at Durham Cathedral.
As the marketing manager at Axess 2, my years of knowledge and experience in the lift industry let me say with confidence that it’s vital in a project like this to always remain understanding when confronted with issues like the ones we faced – by doing so, the Cathedral’s team greatly contributed to an incredibly positive and memorable experience.
Upgrading a listed building of historical and architectural significance provided us with a rewarding experience that we enjoyed every step of the way, and being able to make access available to more people is a true pleasure.
By Nathan Massey, Marketing Manager at Axess 2.
Most visitors to Durham Cathedral are not aware that stored in the west end of the late-eleventh century undercroft of the old refectory, on the south side of the cloister, are several hundred carved stones. These represent some 800 years of construction at the cathedral church and priory buildings.
For me, it was a great privilege to be offered the opportunity to photograph nearly 150 carved stones from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. As a fieldworker and board member of the Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland, I spent a week in Durham examining the standing architecture, as well as the loose stones at first hand. Most of the loose fragments had never been photographed before, so there was much to discover!
In October 2014, along with Dr Jane Cunningham (fellow fieldworker) and Jon Turnock (post-graduate student), we spent several long days in the undercroft, where I photographed the individual stones and they measured and took notes. I re-visited the undercroft in 2015 for a few days to complete the photographic survey and have since been uploading the numerous photographs and measurements onto the Corpus site, ready for the descriptions and background information to be written up. It will still be some months before the completed work for the Corpus is made available to the public at large, but this will result in a permanent and complete record of the carved stones at Durham from this period.
How these stones came to be preserved in the undercroft is a long story, but repairs, excavations, and changes to the buildings over many centuries provide the main explanations. Their preservation is crucial for understanding how certain parts of the cathedral looked at various stages, and how these parts should be correctly repaired and maintained in the future. It is, for example, only through these stones that the east end of the Chapter House was accurately rebuilt in the late nineteenth century.
But the stones also allow a glimpse into what buildings (or parts of buildings) looked like initially. Durham was one of the most important ecclesiastical sites in medieval northern England and it’s effect on architectural developments elsewhere was enormous. The intricately carved stones affirm a keen interest towards elaborate and high-quality decoration on the part of various bishops and their desire for ever more ornate and refined work.
The carved stones confirm, as well, an awareness of the latest developments taking place elsewhere. Durham’s bishops were determined to have the best sculptors and architects and have left us a legacy to enjoy and appreciate for centuries to come. Researchers from around the world will also in future be able to carry out fuller and more detailed investigations into the nature and development of architecture and design of this period, and this should help to enhance a better understanding of the past. It is my hope that many more people, as a result, will be able to experience a thrill of the past through these fascinating stones.
Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland
Some people are passionate about people, some people are passionate about places, but I’m immensely passionate about stones. There’s nothing more rewarding than conserving beautiful stones and sculptures that have stood the test of time, and preserving them for future generations.
Over the years, I have been privileged to work on projects at many prestigious institutions from Hampton Court Palace to the National Galleries of Scotland. And now my sculpture conservation company has been employed by Durham Cathedral, to conserve their extraordinary collection of Roman and Anglo-Saxon stones, ready for display in the Cathedral’s new Open Treasure exhibition, opening in spring 2016.
The collection of stones at Durham Cathedral is truly remarkable. There are over 80 ancient stones, including eight Roman pieces, and the majority date from the Anglo-Saxon period, including inscribed stones, cross shafts, and hogbacks. The historic and cultural importance of this collection is outstanding, and being able to work closely with such incredible artefacts is a real honour.
Together with six other conservators, I have been responsible for cleaning and stabilising the stones. The cleaning process is done with great care and sensitivity, leaving in place any past painted archival markings and surface patina that reflect the history of the stones. We have also been consolidating and filling any fine cracks with a special inert fill and removing any cement filler used in years gone by, which can actually damage the stones.
Although we’ll never know who created these beautiful carvings, I can’t help but feel a spiritual connection with those who originally carved the stones many hundreds of years ago. Their tools would have been somewhat similar to those still used today, but without our modern tungsten tipped chisels, and their passion for stone carving is unmistakable. One can see what may be remains of drill holes in some of the carvings. This creates a bond across the centuries between us as conservators and the Anglo-Saxon stone carvers, making the process of conserving stones an incredibly moving and often spiritual journey.
Working in the magnificent Monks’ Dormitory has also been an honour. This stunning fourteenth-century space is one of the most remarkable rooms I’ve worked in, and the height of the stones draws your attention to the medieval oak-beamed ceiling overhead. As the stones are so heavy, they have remained in-situ whilst the Monks’ Dormitory has been restored to its former glory, protected by special coverings. But when the Open Treasure exhibition opens they will finally be unveiled in all their glory to be admired by thousands of visitors each year.
If we’ve done our job properly, then people won’t even be able to notice that the stones have been conserved! But when we see the stones in their rightful place at the heart of the Open Treasure exhibition, we will certainly feel immensely proud of our role in this wonderful project.
Graciela Ainsworth Sculpture Conservation, Leith, Edinburgh
The stones will be exhibited at the start of Open Treasure, close to the entrance to the Monks’ Dormitory, providing a breathtaking introduction to the exhibitions. Their re-display and interpretation has been funded by a £130,000 grant from The Monument Trust, one of the Sainsbury Family Charitable Trusts.
The Open Treasure project at Durham Cathedral is opening up a new exhibition route through some of the Cathedral’s remarkable historic spaces.
A major part of the project is the transformation of the fourteenth-century Monks’ Dormitory. Many visitors will be familiar with the room, which has been used as a library since the 1840s. It has a spectacular oak-beamed ceiling and is lined with wooden bookcases built from English oak.
One of the big jobs for me and the Cathedral’s other two joiners has been the creation of doors for the bookcases. These will keep the books safe and allow us to continue using the room as a working library once it is opened as an exhibition space.
We had to make over eighty doors in total and because the bookcases were originally handmade, no two doors are the same. Each bookcase is slightly different from the next in shape and size, and even within each case the left and right doors are not perfectly symmetrical. This meant that for every door we had to carefully measure the case and create a plywood template. Then we used the template to cut the door from European oak before attaching a metal grill and a lock mechanism. We started this daunting task in February and it is impossible to say exactly how many hours it has taken us, but it has definitely been an extremely time-consuming job!
At the moment we are busy hanging the doors so that the polisher can come and varnish them. Each of the bookcases is a subtly different colour thanks to the way the sunlight has faded them over the centuries, so he can’t pick the right shade until they are in position.
The beauty of our job as joiners at the Cathedral is that we do such a variety of tasks – and these doors definitely provided us with a new challenge. I must confess that by door number fifty we were sick of the sight of them, but now we can’t wait to have them all hung and polished. It will definitely feel good to get the job done and to see people enjoying the new exhibition space.
Tony Swallow, Joiner
Open Treasure is one of the biggest things to happen to Durham Cathedral in hundreds of years! From the Monks’ Dormitory to the Great Kitchen, days and months of labour and planning have gone into transforming the Cathedral’s historic Claustral buildings into world-class exhibition spaces.
As Project and Facilities manager here at Durham Cathedral, I am heavily involved with the planning and building of Open Treasure. From Holograms and electronic glass doors to the stone arches and original 14th-century bookcases, Open Treasure will be the perfect balance of old and modern working together to provide a functional and working exhibition space.
Every room within Open Treasure has its merits. The fourteenth-century Monks’ Dormitory is the second best example of a medieval oak-beamed roof in the country, second only to Westminster Hall, whilst the Great Kitchen is one of only two surviving monastic kitchens in the UK.
The state-of-the-art Collections Gallery will also play a central role in Open Treasure, allowing us to present a dynamic rolling exhibition programme of exhibits loaned from different institutions alongside our own treasures from stunning textiles to exquisite metalwork. So each time you visit Open Treasure you’ll be able to see something new!
We have been challenged by many things throughout the completion of Open Treasure. However the most difficult thing has been coordinating the mechanical and electrical components to work in such a historic building.
But it makes everything worthwhile when you see the progress we have made so far, especially when we uncover hidden gems. A small set of stairs, which were only recently discovered, have been dated back to the 11th century! It is quite exciting trying to figure out who will have last climbed these steps and why they were covered in the first place.
In the section under the Refectory Library, visitors will see the combination of new stone alongside old stone, showing the whole purpose of Open Treasure in this one section where the new and old are working together to support the building above.
It has been a privilege to work on this fantastic project for the last four years with some highly talented companies, and in some ways it will be sad to see the project come to an end. We have been pushed to the limits of imagination, but it has been highly rewarding and we can’t wait to see the finished result!
Open Treasure will open in summer 2016 with over 120,000 visitors expected each year.
As Open Treasure develops, there will be many opportunities to get involved. Keep up-to-date with our progress at www.durhamcathedral.co.uk
Tom Billington, Property and Facilities Manager, Durham Cathedral.
When looking through the arches of Durham Cathedral’s Cloister, have you ever found yourself wondering what is happening behind the hoarding and scaffolding?
As one of the stonemasons at Durham Cathedral, I am one of the lucky few able to access this area of the Cathedral and witness the extraordinary transformation taking place.
A major stone conservation project is currently underway as part of the Cathedral’s Open Treasure project, preserving the façade of the Cathedral for generations to come. At the moment, the stone conservation work is focused on the exterior of the Monks’ Dormitory, which will mark the start of the new exhibition route opening in 2016.
Here at Durham Cathedral we have our own Works Department, with masonry and a stone-carving workshop that employs around 8 stonemasons including myself. Together, we have been working hard to remove the old cement based pointing and clean out all of the joints.
We are now repointing with a traditional technique and an eco-friendly hot lime mortar mix. Whilst achieving the highest temperatures possible, this process will allow the medieval stone to breathe and prolong its life.
When working with a 1,000 year-old building, the decay of stonework is inevitable and along the parapets we will be conserving as much original stone work as possible, stones which cannot be saved are to be removed and replaced. These stones will be exact replicas worked to the lines of the original masonry, all hand-carved and worked with mallets and chisel here at Durham Cathedral.
All of this traditional work takes time and money and we rely on the generous donations of visitors to help to keep this magnificent building in good structural order for many generations to come.
If you’re interested in learning more about the work of the stonemasons at Durham Cathedral, please visit www.durhamcathedral.co.uk/heritage
Scott Richardson, Stonemason